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Application of Medical Titanium Alloy-Ⅰ
Jun 29, 2018

Due to their similar elastic modulus to bone excellent biocompatibility and  al environment pure titanium and its alloys have been widely used in clinic The development and re -  search status of the biomedical titanium allovs was reviewed in this article with the illumination of bicom -  patibility mechanism of titanium In addition the research status of the surface modification of titanium alloys  briefly . The excellent biocompatibility of pure titanium and its alloys owes  and their composites was disc  to the oxide layer on their surfaces Due to its better wear resistance than that of α/α+β titanium βtitanium  is considered as a promising material as the orthopedic implants To enhance the bioactivity two effective  ways are expected One is to seek a more perfect surface modification technology for obtaining high quality  coatings and the other is to fabricate a composite by inco . tatus , biocompatibility ; surface modification  phases into titanum alloys 

The characteristics of the titanium and titanium alloy

A.Light

When 20 ℃ the density of titanium and titanium alloy is 4.5 g/cm³, only 56% of the stainless steel. Reducing the load embedded in the human body greatly, as well as the medical personnel operating load of the medical equipment.

B. Low modulus of elasticity

The elastic modulus for pure titanium is 10850 KGF / mm², only 53% of the stainless steel. Titanium and titanium alloy closer to the body's natural bone and beneficial when embedded in the body, also can reduce stress shielding effect of implant bone.

C. No magnetic

Titanium and titanium alloy is a nonmagnetic metal, not affected by electromagnetic field and the thunderstorm weather, this is helpful to safety after use of the human .

D.Non-toxic

Titanium and titanium alloy are non-toxic, and don’t make any toxic effects to human body as implants.

E. Corrosion resistance

Titanium and titanium alloy is called biological inert metal materials, blood soaking

environment to the human body has excellent corrosion resistance, to ensure the good with human blood and tissue compatibility, as the implant does not produce human pollution, no allergic reaction takes place, it is the basis of the application of titanium and titanium alloy.

In the human body implants with titanium and titanium alloy surface anodic oxidation coloring processing, improve the embedded object in the human body under the condition of wear resistance, corrosion resistance and cycle fatigue resistance, and to a great extent, solve the problem of metal ions, dissolution, enhances the intermiscibility of implants. At the same time also can be used as the identification of different specifications products, convenient for operation.

F. High strength and good toughness

When injureing a trauma, tumor or other factors lead to damage of bone and joint, we need to build a solid bone scaffold with the aid of curved plates, screws, artificial bone and joint, etc., these implants will leave the body for a long time, will be affected by the bending and torsion of the human body, extrusion, the action such as muscle contraction force, require implants with high strength and toughness. The research and clinical examples show that in the human body small stress parts can use pure titanium, the big force body parts can use Ti6Al4V alloy, can completely meet the requirements of medical implants.

The development of medical titanium alloy

The development of titanium and its alloys can be divided into three eras. The first era is represented by pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. The second era is represented by Ti5AlFe as a new alloy, and the third is caused by aluminum damage.

Times is an era of development and development of better biocompatibility and lower elastic modulus titanium alloys, of which the most extensive research on α+β titanium alloys. At present, widely used in the medical field.

As early as the middle of the 1980s, the country began to develop aluminum alloys without aluminum, vanadium, and biocompatibility, and use them for orthopedics. Japan and the United Kingdom have also done a lot of research in this area and made some new progress. Compared to α+β titanium alloys, β titanium alloys have higher strength and are Ti6Al4v ELI alloys. However, the latter will precipitate a very small amount of vanadium and aluminum ions, which reduces its cell adaptability and may cause harm to the human body. This problem has long attracted widespread medical attention. The United States and better incision performance and toughness are more suitable for implantation into the human body as an implant. In the United States, five beta-titanium alloys have been proposed to the medical field. It is estimated that in the near future, such niobium-titanium alloys with high strength, low elastic modulus and excellent formability and corrosion resistance are likely to replace the Ti6Al4V ELI alloy widely used in the current medical field.

Pinciple of titanium biocompatibility

Biocompatibility means that the material causes an appropriate reaction in a specific part of the body. According to the interpretation of the International Standards Organization (ISO) meeting, biocompatibility refers to a property of a living body tissue that reacts to an inactive material and generally refers to the compatibility between the material and the host. After the biological material is implanted into the human body, it has an influence and effect on the specific biological tissue environment. The biological tissue also exerts influence and effect on the biological material, and the circulatory effects of both continue until the equilibrium is reached or the implant is removed. Biocompatibility is the theme that has always been involved in the study of biological materials.

The excellent biocompatibility of pure titanium and its alloys is mainly attributed to the surface-attached oxide layer. The main advantages of the titanium surface oxide layer are: titanium dioxide has a low inherent toxicity; titanium dioxide solubility in water is very low; tetravalent titanium and The reactivity of biomolecules is very low, close to chemical inertness; & peroxide chemistry has significant anti-inflammatory effects.

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