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Application of Medical Titanium Alloy-Ⅱ
Jul 02, 2018

Titanium alloys in medical applications

A.Artificial hip joint

Artificial hip joint, a kind of artificial joint, is modeled on the structure of the human hip joint. Refers to the insertion of a metal rod from the upper end of the femur with a metal ball on the top of the rod that can replace the top of the femur. A plastic bowl is glued in the hip socket and the metal ball is embedded in the bowl. Thousands of patients now have such joints. At present, the most commonly used metal material for the hip joint is titanium alloy material. Titanium alloy blanks are processed by hot isostatic pressing. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy is processed by casting, and stainless steel is forged by a forging method, and then machined and formed by surface treatment.

B.Titanium alloy porcelain teeth

It mainly refers to the porcelain tooth material between the precious metal porcelain teeth and the nickel-chromium alloy porcelain teeth. This porcelain teeth from the strict sense, to ensure good human body affinity, and this material is more suitable for the human body health requirements, its life expectancy will greatly exceed people's imagination, in theory, as long as the correct use of teeth, the service life is a lifetime. Its advantage is that titanium alloy and ceramics have a good binding force. The titanium alloy porcelain teeth have the characteristics of not easy to collapse porcelain and durable. The titanium alloy has good biocompatibility, and usually does not cause discoloration of the surrounding tissue. The disadvantages are: the crown of the titanium alloy porcelain crown is gray metallic. After the titanium alloy porcelain crown is repaired, it will show a subtle cyan color under special light, and its beauty effect is relatively poor.

C. Titanium alloy bracket

At present, titanium alloy stents are widely used due to their advantages such as high strength, smooth surface, abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance, and permanent repair. Typical titanium alloy stents contain 46% titanium and have good biocompatibility, equal to 75% of the gold alloy.

Titanium alloy stents are used to repair patients in a short period of time to perform chewing function, and the discomfort is eliminated quickly, and the fixation is good. A titanium alloy stent is used to repair missing teeth and has good strength and elasticity. Pure titanium and human tissues have good adaptability, so that the oral mucosa below the base will not produce similar rejection reactions, such as changes in the microvascular flow rate, increased tissue fluid leakage and so on. In this way, the conditions for denture stomatitis after wearing a titanium alloy denture are greatly reduced, which improves patient satisfaction. Titanium alloy stent can help restore the    shape and function of the tooth, and it has high strength, smooth surface, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. It is a kind of permanent restoration and is suitable for all fixators. Denture stomatitis In particular, it has good biocompatibility and is suitable for people who are sensitive to nickel ions. Now it has been widely applied to the repair of front teeth.

Application of Titanium Material in Pharmaceutical Industry

Titanium is used primarily in the pharmaceutical industry to make containers, reactors, and heaters. In pharmaceutical production, the equipment is often exposed to inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, organic acids 

and their salts. The equipment is often damaged due to corrosion. At the same time, the iron ion contamination caused by the steel equipment affects the quality of the product. The titanium equipment is used. You can solve these problems. For example, penicillin esterification tanks, saccharification tanks, chloramphenicol thin film evaporators, metamizole reactors, Mettler filters, dimethyl sulphate coolers, liquid filter, etc., all have precedents for the selection of titanium materials. The quantity and quality of the liquid medicine produced have been continuously improved, and the quality is in full compliance with the provisions of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

The future development trend of titanium alloys

(a) Titanium memory alloy

In the early 1980s, NiTi shape memory alloys were successfully used in orthopaedics clinics, attracting the attention of orthopedic experts and clinicians and calling them "magic metals." This functional material has a unique shape memory effect, super elasticity, fatigue resistance, abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance, and good biocompatibility. It consists of 56% (mass percentage) Ni and 44% (mass percentage) titanium. The NTSMA used in orthopaedic clinics has a deformation temperature of 0°C5°C and a recovery temperature of about 37°C. After NTSMA material is used to fix the fracture, the temperature rises under warm body or hot salt water to produce shape recovery, but the bone limits the recovery of the material, which results in a dynamic, continuous nature of pressure or clamping force at the fractured end. To achieve a fixed fracture. The basic research of NTSMA materials in China is later than that in foreign countries, but it is in an internationally leading position in clinical application research. In 2000, in terms of implants in orthopedics, Lanzhou Ximai Memory Alloys Co., Ltd. obtained the registration of product approval from the State Drug Administration, which promoted the clinical application of NTSMA orthopedic plants. At present, three companies in China have registered the production of NTSMA bone internal fixation devices, including staples, polytherapies, embracing steel plates, NiTi arched memory compression bone grafts, and intramedullary nails.

 (II) Surface Modification of Medical Pure Titanium and Its Titanium Alloys

In the biomedical field, surface modification is mainly to improve the wear resistance, corrosion resistance and biological properties (including biocompatibility and biological activity) of the implant. Although titanium and its alloys have the closest elastic modulus to bones compared to other metallic materials, they are still much higher than the elastic modulus of bones, which can easily cause mismatches in the mechanical properties of the interface; Look, titanium and natural bones are completely different in composition. Although there is good biocompatibility between titanium and bone, there is no fiber cyst formation around the implant after implantation, but titanium alloy and bone are only a kind of mechanical inlaying. Sexual osseointegration, rather than strong chemical osseointegration, has led to increasing emphasis on surface modification of titanium alloys to improve their biological performance.

Concluding remarks

From the current development status of biomedical materials, it is not difficult to find that pure titanium and its alloys have superior superiority to other materials. Although there are still some unsatisfactory areas in clinical practice, it is still a very good one. The future of hard tissue replacement materials, the development of new titanium alloys that are more suitable for clinical applications is a major development direction for biomedical titanium alloys. It is seeking a more ideal surface modification process to obtain high-quality coatings and solve the problem of coating and The combination of substrates is also a very promising method. In addition, the addition of biologically active phases to titanium alloy matrices to prepare composites by suitable composite techniques is also a new approach worth investigating. It is hoped that with the efforts of many biomaterial workers, the application of pure titanium and its alloys in clinical applications will be further promoted.